Category "Tips & Tricks"

Simulations in Aerospace and Defense companies have a well-defined workflow. They have two separate teams for composites products: one for design and other for simulation. Composites ply design is primarily done by design engineers. These are the folks that determine the composites material as well as ply thicknesses and stackings in different regions of the composites part. CATIA composites design and manufacturing workbench has all sorts of tools to help designers achieve their objectives. We have discussed these workbenches in past.

However, because of FAA and other regulations in place, design has to be validated with FEA simulation and for most of the non linear workflows, Abaqus is the right solver choice. Though CATIA does provide an environment for Abaqus pre-processing, the preferred method in Aerospace industry is to use Abaqus CAE user interface. This is because of two reasons. First reason is better meshing capabilities offered by Abaqus CAE and second is tight coupling of Abaqus CAE with underlying solver. The obvious questions that arises is “how to move the ply information from CATIA to Abaqus CAE.”

The answer is composites link in collaboration with composites modeler for Abaqus CAE. The composites link exports the ply data from CATIA in form of layup file. Based on workflow, three options are possible.

  • Export only the ply data: When mesh is already in Abaqus CAE environment.
  • Export ply data with CATIA mesh: When meshing has been done in CATIA Analysis environment.
  • Export ply with external mesh file: When Abaqus input file needs to be merged with ply data.There are further options to export data either with or without taking change in orientations due to wrinkling into account as done by composites fiber modeler. Once the mesh and layup comes in Abaqus CAE environment, it is possible to explode the shell data based on ply thickness and create solid elements from shells. Abaqus CAE automatically creates section properties and assignments based on modified ply orientations. It is further possible to visualize ply orientations on each ply as well as ply stack plots on element by element bases. Once the data transfer and visualization is complete, the entire advanced analysis set up such as bird strike, fracture or delamination can be defined in Abaqus for analysis.

Computational fluid dynamics role of 3DX is the one going through tremendous enhancements compared to other roles available on the platform. In this blog article, I am going to highlight a few key enhancements with respect to the scenario modeling and the underlying solver.

Multiple reference frames

Most of CFD users are familiar with concept of moving fluid boundaries. Traditionally these problems have been solved using coupled Eularian – Lagrangian (CEL) techniques. In simple words this technique can be defined as a combination of two fluid spaces: one near the boundary in which fluid moves with the mesh and other away from the boundary in which fluid moves through the mesh. A whole new concept has been introduced in 3DX CFD to solve such problems. It is moving reference frames that can either translate or rotate with respect to a global reference frame. Either entire fluid domain or a portion of it can be assigned to this frame of reference. The governing equations are solved in this reference frame. Interfaces are created between moving and stationary frames to maintain motion continuity.

 

Compressible flows

Compressible flows become a concern when speed of flow is high. While this may not be relevant for companies designing exhaust manifolds or valves, an analyst trying to study the exterior air flow drag on a fighter jet moving at one tenth the speed of sound would feel the need of compressible air flow. The new release can simulate transonic flows up-to Mach number of 1.2.

Modeling of porous media

Are you looking to model components such as catalytic converters or air filters? Well, these products have a permeable medium that allows restrictive flow of air through it. Modeling such flows require porous media functionality that is now supported in 3DX CFD.

These along with many other enhancements are now a part of 3D experience 2018x platform. If you wish to know more, please feel free to contact us.

When it comes to Abaqus structural solver, picture is clear. There is a standard (implicit) solver as well as an explicit solver. Each of these has its own merits and demerits that we have discussed in previous blog articles. However, in CFD there appears to be only one solver. So…

Is it implicit or explicit!!

Well, if you look at the underlying parameters of the solver, it appears to be hybrid. The solver talks about inner loop and outer loop convergence. That makes user feel that solver is implicit and it requires matrix based calculations. This is true for both steady state as well as transient flows. But then when we talk about transient flow parameters, solver mentions CFL number that primarily governs the step size of transient flow. Higher CFL number results in larger step sizes but beyond a certain value of CFL, the flow may become unstable. This looks more like an explicit scheme where stability plays a role. But then, the transient flow also requires convergence that is not an explicit property. So where do we stand.

The answer is somewhat mixed. The CFD solver of Abaqus is implicit by nature. However, it does not follow all the traits of structural implicit solver. One big difference is that CFD implicit solver is not unconditionally stable. While the explicit structural solver just exits if time increment exceeds its critical value, the CFD solver continues at larger than desired CFL numbers but it may give non-realistic flow results. The other big difference is the physical quantities involved. The structural implicit solver looks at force and displacement residuals for convergence. The CFD solver looks at momentum, pressure and velocity residuals.

SIMULIA has made good efforts in 2018x release of CFD solution on the 3D Experience platform in terms of making the solver fully implicit so that it can handle large time increments. There have been other solver enhancements to improve accuracy and reduce solution time. Wish to know more about SIMULIA CFD techniques! Please get in touch.

In recent blog article on friction, I discussed about a new Abaqus functionality that allows user to define friction as surface property and Abaqus computes contact pair friction coefficients from corresponding surface friction properties. In this blog article we discuss yet another nice and recent functionality in Abaqus explicit called anisotropic friction.

The anisotropic behavior may arise from number of scenarios the most common of which is composite material that has longitudinal and transverse fiber directions. In such a scenario, the coefficient of friction between contact pair depends on the relative direction of sliding between the contact surfaces. Looking for a real-life example!!!

“The interaction of seat belt with the occupant body is an example of anisotropic friction”

he above figure shows the concept pictorially. Blue arrows indicate the direction of relative sliding. Hence these arrows are always at an angle of 180 degrees. The red lines show the direction of primary material axis. Theta is the angle between blue arrows and red lines per surface. The directional friction stress is computes as:

Both anisotropic friction as well as estimation of friction interaction from surface property are in the category of “combinatorial rules” and both are controlled by same keyword entry as follows in the .inp file.

If both the nominal friction and directional preferences are to be determined from surface property, it is not necessary to define *friction keyword.

 

In this article we are going to discuss an advanced friction modeling technique in Abaqus. It is based on combination rules that allows solver to compute effective friction interaction based on two contacting surfaces with different coefficients of friction. As an example, look at the following table:

If someone asks: “what is the coefficient of friction of steel?” There really is no answer to this question. The answer really depends on the other object with which steel interacts. The table shows two different values, one for steel-steel interaction and other with steel-teflon interaction. If the user has NXM matrix of materials interacting with each other and each cell of that matrix has a friction coefficient assigned to it, then modeling in Abaqus is trivial. Define surface interaction with friction coefficient for each cell and use it with corresponding surface pair in the contact property assignment. The example below highlights it.

 

But this straightforward approach is possible only if friction values for all cells are available. However, at times only the diagonal values are available. That means all the non-diagonal cell values are unknown. In that case contact property assignment is not possible.

Abaqus now allows users to define friction as surface property as well. For two different surfaces (A,B) with individual coefficient of friction, the effective friction for pair is computed as follows:

The default value of alpha is 0.3. In case of mixed problems, where surface property and contact property methods co-exist, either method can take precedence. Look at following example.

The approach is an approximation but its worth in situations where user has no access to friction coefficients values for all the contact material pairs. This friction algorithm is available in Abaqus explicit 2018 release and beyond.

 

This topic has always been very popular and this problem has always been very complicated in FEA user community since the inception of Abaqus, or any non-linear FEA code in general. In this brief article, I will highlight few simulation situations where Abaqus standard may not be a good candidate from convergence perspective. Identifying these situations early during pre-processing and working in Explicit right away may save lots of time and efforts that otherwise would be wasted in trying Abaqus Standard.

  • Look at the motion aspect: We always say that simulation is not the complete replacement of physical testing right away. In the beginning physical tests play a critical role in identifying right approach for simulation as well as in data correlation between physical and virtual tests. Look closely at the physical test. Is there a large relative motion between different parts involved? If yes, then Standard is very likely to face convergence problems, even if problem is static by nature. Standard has an option of “small sliding” and “finite sliding”. But user should remember the difference between “finite sliding” and “large sliding”. Attached is the video of wire crimping simulation that ideally is a static problem but numerically not a good candidate for Standard, primarily because of motion.
  • Clock time matters: Apart from magnitude of motion, the duration of motion matters as well. While looking at physical test, closely look at the time in which motion is completed. If too much of motion is covered in too less time, problem is indeed dynamic instead of static as inertia effects cannot be ignored. In such a situation either Standard dynamics or Explicit would be the right way to go. Which one to choose really depends on event duration. If a lot of dynamic phenomenon happens in the order of milliseconds or microseconds, Explicit is only option for this candidate.
  • Is there a severe discontinuous contact: In the status file of Abaqus Standard, there is an undesirable column called SDI’s. It’s called severe discontinuous iterations and too many of these often always leads to convergence nightmare. The reason of SDI’s is discontinuous contact, also known as “chattering”. It’s a phenomenon in which nodes between two bodies in contact continuously change their contact status from OPEN to CLOSE from one iteration to the other as analysis proceeds. If chattering occurs due to modeling errors, it can be corrected but at times discontinuous contact is the nature of problem itself. In such a situation, explicit is the only approach to be taken, even for long duration events with respect to physical time. The attached video is an example of a dynamic event that would only solve in explicit or multi body dynamics, primarily because of severe discontinuous contact.
  • Is there too much Plasticity: Abaqus has material models to capture plasticity but there is a limit on the magnitude of Plasticity Abaqus Standard can handle. If the permanent deformation becomes so high that underlying part completely loses its load carrying capacity then Newton Raphson method of Abaqus Standard would not be able to establish equilibrium and further leading to non-convergence. Ideally, there is no further need to perform simulation as it’s a classic situation of part failure but if further simulation is needed, it should be continued in Explicit using Restart options.

In previous blog articles on 3D Experience simulation roles, we primarily discussed platform configurations, concept of personas and roles as well as simulation capacity of the platform. In this blog article contains detailed information about three primary structural simulation roles: MDS, DRD and SMU.

To begin with, lets recapitulate that simulation roles are categorized in groups based on personas of users working on such roles. In terms of complexity and functionality, offerings range from based to intermediate to advanced.

 

Engineer profile: The is the simplest and easiest to use simulation offering primarily meant for designers with low to intermediate simulation knowledge. Their primary job is product design and they perform simulations very occasionally. Roles for this profile are CAD centric and are associated with a guided workflow. Simulation tokens are embedded in the role.

Analysis engineer profile: This profile is one level above the engineer profile and is suitable for structural analysis engineers associated with product engineering. Their simulation knowledge is of intermediate level which means they understand simulation process in terms of meshing, BC, Loads, result visualization etc. but don’t have any hands-on experience of advanced simulation tools. Usually there is no guided workflow. Simulation tokens are embedded in the role.

Analyst profile: This role is for full time analysts who primarily perform intermediate to advanced level simulations. They have in depth expertise in at-least one simulation domain and often hold Masters or Doctorate level credentials. This role requires extensive knowledge of pre-processing, solver terminologies such as statics, dynamics, non-linearity, convergence schemes, as well as post processing etc. There is no guided workflow. Simulation tokens are procured separately.

 Research Specialist profile: This is a complex simulation offering primarily for experts who develop novel simulation workflows and processes. The simulation requirements often span across multiple physical domains and involves advanced Physics such as vibrations and noise. The pre-processing aspect may include complex meshing of assemblies and assemblies of meshes.

Let’s look at one role from each of first three profiles:

Stress Engineer role (MDS)

 

It’s a role from engineer profile and has a guided workflow. The snapshot shows apps available in MDS role. It performs routine strength and deflection calculations under static loading conditions. It can also compute product fatigue life for very simple loads. The CATIA and SOLIDWORKS associativity is well maintained. Local solver execution up to 4 cores is included.

Structural analysis Engineer role (DRD)

 

It’s a role from analysis engineer profile that has no guided workflow. It is used to access the structural integrity of products subjected to wide range of loading conditions. The snapshot above shows available apps in this role. It works on MSR concept available in advanced simulation tools i.e.  Model-Scenario-Results. Many advanced settings are exposed to the user. This role can perform multi step simulations. Local job execution of up to 8 cores is available.

Mechanical Analyst role (SMU)

 

It’s a role from analyst profile and it does not include a guided workflow. The snapshot above shows available apps in this role.  It uses advanced finite element techniques to simulate and validate complex engineering problems. It offers multiple advanced meshing techniques such as Octree, surface, sweep and RBM. Both single step as well as multi step scenarios are included. Supported analysis steps include static perturbation, non-linear static, frequency, buckling, implicit dynamics, explicit dynamics, steady state heat transfer, transient heat transfer etc. Most of the non-linear materials and complex engineering connections are included.

While we discussed one prominent role from each profile, the south quadrant of 3D Experience platform offers numerous simulation roles. To know more, please contact us.

Organizations invest huge sums of money in simulation software to avoid expensive and disruptive physical testing processes. But how long it really takes to make this transformation happen! One thing is sure; it does not happen in a day. The flow chart below explains the reason pictorially. The last two blocks “compare and improve model” and “compare and improve theory” make this transformation a longer process than expected.

 

Let’s explore the reasons behind it. Comparison is needed to make sure that simulation results mimic the physical testing results before latter can be discarded, partially or fully. The difference in results can be due to three main factors: lack of user competency, limitation of software used, lack of sufficient input data.

Lack of user competency: FEA analysts are not born in a day. The subject is complex to learn and so are the software associated with it. The ramp up time really depends on analyst background along with complexity of problem being simulated. Organizations usually make a choice between hiring expert and expensive analysts who can deliver the results right away or producing analysts of its own through class room and hands on trainings. First option saves time while the second saves money. CAE software development companies are also making big stories these days by introducing CAD embedded simulation tools that require nominal user competency. Nevertheless, the competency builds up over time.

Limitation of software used: Initial investment in simulation domain is usually small. It means two things: either number of users are less or software functionality is limited. With time, complexity of problems goes up but the software remains the same. A common example I have seen is of a customer starting with simple linear simulation workbench in CATIA and over period trying to simulate finite sliding contact problems with frictional interfaces in the same workbench. Users don’t realize that their problem complexity has exceeded the software capacity to handle and it’s time to upgrade. It’s always recommended that analysts get in touch with their software vendors whenever they anticipate an increase in simulation software capacity or functionality. A certified simulation software vendor is a trusted advisor who can really help.

Lack of sufficient input data: “Garbage in – Garbage out” is a very common phrase in simulation world. However, at times it is very difficult to get the right input for software in use. The complexity of input data can arise either from complex material behavior or from complex loading conditions. Example of complex material may be hyper-elasticity or visco-elasticity observed in elastomeric materials. Examples of complex loading may be real time multi block road load data to estimate fatigue life. Sometimes simple metallic structures exhibit complex behavior due to complex loading. Examples are high speed impact or creep loading. With time many material testing labs have come into existence that can perform in house testing to provide right input data for simulation.

Conclusion: You will come out of the vicious loop of physical and simulation results comparison after couple of iterations if you have three things in place: right people, right software product and right input data. If you need help in any of the three aspects, we are always available.

“What you buy makes a difference but from whom you buy makes a bigger difference”

Most often, I talk about greatness of our product offerings in my blog articles. Such kind of blogs assist prospective customers in choosing the right product. But the same product can be procured in multiple ways, either directly from the developer or through a value-added reseller also called as VAR. In this blog article, I would emphasize on how prospective customer should select the right VAR while purchasing a Dassault Systemes or Siemens simulation product.

The first thing a customer needs to verify is whether VAR is supplying just the product or the complete solution. The difference between the two is the “value added services” associated with product usage.

Without value added services, it’s not possible for a reseller to become a value-added reseller.” Please identify if you are doing business with just a reseller or a value-added reseller. Remember, simulation tools are not easy to use. There is a learning curve associated with these tools that can greatly impact the ROI and break-even timeline. The productivity of the user can be substantially enhanced if he is associated with a reseller who can provide whole bunch of services to shorten the learning curve and achieve break-even faster. Now let’s look at what type of services makes a difference in simulation space.

We are talking about software sales as well as consulting, training and support. Our software partners, Dassault Systemes, Siemens and Autodesk offer a bunch of certifications around these four components to distinguish between just “resellers” and “value added resellers.” Being certified means reseller has enough resources and knowledge to execute a given task of sales or service. Let’s talk about each component with respect to Simulation:

Software: To sell any DS SIMULIA product, the associated VAR should have “SIMULIA V6 design sight” certification as a minimum. There are further brand certifications available such as Mid-Market Articulate for product highlight and Mid-Market Demonstrate for product technical demonstration. To sell FEMAP product from Siemens, the VAR must have “FEMAP technical certification” as a minimum. All these certifications are associated with timed examinations.

Training: Training should be an integral part of simulation software sales. It gives users enough knowledge to use the software product in production environment. To offer technical training on any SIMULIA product, the VAR should have “finite element analysis with Abaqus specialist” certification as a minimum.

Support: Once users are in production environment, technical support is required on continuous basis. While many answers related to product usage are in documentation, it’s not a full source of information. Many queries are model specific that require attention of a dedicated support engineer. To offer technical support on any SIMULIA product, the VAR should have at-least one engineer who has “SIMULIA technical support specialist” certification.  This certification should be renewed every two years. It is associated with a lengthy and “hard to pass” support certification examination across all products of SIMULIA brand.

Consulting: Consulting service plays a big role when customer either does not have enough time or resources to execute projects in house in-spite of having software product. It happens during certain burst phases of demand. While there are no certification criteria for VAR’s related to consulting in simulation space, a dedicated consulting and delivery team is needed to offer the service when demand arises.

The above information should help you in ranking your VAR. Do you need to know our rank? Please contact us.

 

MESHING CAPABILITIES IN ABAQUS CAE

It is a well-known fact in the CAE community that the efficiency and accuracy of finite element models are directly dependent on the quality of the underlying meshes in the model. The various quality parameters associated with elements are element size, aspect ratio, skew angle, jacobian, warp, and many more. Yet another parameter of concern is element topology, which means triangular/quadrilateral elements in case of shell meshes and tetrahedral/hexahedral elements in case of solid meshes. Each of these element topologies has its own advantages and disadvantages; for example, tetrahedral elements are easy to create on complex geometries but they have slower convergence, while hexahedral elements are very much desired in computational expensive simulations such as crash due to better convergence and accuracy but cannot be created easily.

Due to specific meshing requirements arising from the increasing complexity of part geometries, meshing techniques are becoming more important across all industry verticals. Transportation & mobility is primarily concerned with hexahedral meshes of pre-defined quality for very complex geometries. This industry has more focus on using Hypermesh and Ansa as a dedicated meshing tools. However these tools are primarily known for good meshing capabilities only. When there is a need to create input decks for advanced non-linear simulations such as with Nastran solution sequences 600/700 or for Abaqus multiphysics or acoustics, many of the solver features are not supported by Hypermesh or Ansa and have to be entered manually into the deck. Aerospace industry has almost always a requirement for composites modeling. They prefer a user interface that can either create or import composite plies and layups. The need for high quality meshes on complex geometries is rather rare. Due to these reasons Aerospace industry has been relying on MSC Patran since many years due to its composites modeling capabilities. However industry is now looking at alternate tools as Patran is losing its competitive edge on CAD import, CAD repair as well as meshing techniques. The CAD repair features are very minimal, there is no CAD associative interface to propagate design changes on FE side and meshing techniques offered are still at very basic level as well.

The objective of this blog is to highlight the meshing techniques in Abaqus CAE that makes CAE a tool of choice in situations where a decent quality mesh, tight integration with multiple CAD platforms as well as tight integration with Abaqus solver are topics of concern for the analyst. It’s worth mentioning for Aerospace industry audience that Abaqus CAE has basic composite modeling capabilities. For advanced composite modeling and visualization capabilities, there is an add on module called composite modeler for Abaqus CAE and there is tight integration between CATIA composites workbench and Abaqus CAE for transfer of FE meshes as well as ply layup information.

THE MESHING TECHNIQUES

 There are primarily four meshing techniques available in Abaqus CAE, both for solid meshes as well as for shell meshes.

Free meshing: This is the easiest of all the techniques as it almost always works with a single click. It primarily generates quadrilateral or triangular elements on surfaces and tetrahedral elements on solids, even on very complex geometries. The downside is that user has very minimal control on elements quality except controlling the mesh density using global and local seeding options.

Sweep meshing: This technique is useful when hexahedral elements are needed on solids with minimal geometry editing though this technique is applicable on surfaces as well. The meshing algorithm automatically identifies a source side and a target side on the geometry, it creates a quadrilateral shell mesh on the source side and sweeps those elements to the target side thereby converting them to hexahedral or bricks. The underlying shell mesh is automatically deleted. The downside is some geometry restrictions with respect to source and target side.

Structured meshing: This meshing techniques is useful when high quality hexahedral or near to perfect shell elements are required on solids or surfaces. This technique offers a better mesh control to the user compared to sweep meshing technique. It works by partitioning the complex solids into smaller six or eight sided parametric solids that can be brick meshed. The nodes at the boundaries are automatically fused to ensure connectivity.

Bottom’s up meshing: This is the last approach when all the other meshing techniques fails. It works on the concept of divide and rule. To some extent it resembles sweep meshing but the underlying geometry restrictions are removed.

THE COLOR CODING FEATURE

This is one feature that sets Abaqus CAE apart from other meshing tools available in the market. While doing meshing, user can see either entire part or regions associated with part (in case of partitions) in pre-defined colors. These colors helps in determining which region of the part would be meshed with which meshing technique if the mesh algorithm is executed. The color cold is as follows:

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The process is quite interactive. The orange color is most undesirable as these regions are non-meshable and require further partitions. Once the region is correctly partitioned and subdivided regions become meshable, the color code is updated instantly. What the user needs to see is the combination of greens, yellows and pinks with peach at certain times before executing meshing operation. During meshing, user has option to either mesh one region at a time or the entire part having multiple regions. In case of interfaces having different element topologies on each side such as green with pink or yellow with pink, tie constraints are automatically created at the boundary to ensure mesh connectivity.

Below is an example of a part that has been partitioned to create certain sweep meshable yellow regions where brick elements are needed. The other region is pink with tetrahedral elements associated to it.

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EFFECTIVE PARTITIONING

Transition of orange region to either yellow, green or peach requires intelligent partitioning of surfaces or solids. While there are many such partitioning tools available, achieving desired results with minimum partitions requires some practice in using these tools. Let’s highlight few of these partitioning methods:

Solid partitions:  Six options are available.

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VIRTUAL TOPOLOGY

This is an optional process that may be needed before partitioning and prior to meshing. This is a way to fix bad CAD data. Many times CAD data has more details than needed by the meshing algorithm. This includes very short edges and very small surfaces. Virtual topology offers certain tools to combine such small faces and edges. There is also an option to suppress these small features so that meshing algorithm does not recognize them.

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